Point horizontal illuminance level calculation: Horizontal illuminance level (Ey) formed by a ray in its direction at a point M at a distance r from the light source is calculated with the equation.
Luminous intensity in the : direction (cd)
cos : Angle between the ray incident at point M and the normal to the surface
r : It is the distance (m) between the light source and the M point.
Point Vertical Illuminance Calculation
Point vertical illuminance level calculation: The vertical illuminance level (Ed) formed by a ray in the y direction at a point M is calculated with the equation. Here:
Bd is the angle between the vertical plane of the ray incident at point M and the normal to the surface.
Lighting Quality Criteria According to TS EN 12464
The lighting quality criteria that must be met for indoor lighting are specified in TS EN 12464. For example, the lighting quality criteria to be provided in office volumes are shown in the table below. Here, Eo is the average illuminance level, UGRL is the glare limitation coefficient, Ra is the color rendering index.
In the same standard, in addition to the above-mentioned quality criteria, it is desired to provide average evenness values depending on the lighting values in the working area and its surroundings in the volume. These values are shown in the table below.
Average Illuminance Level in Indoor Lighting
The general lighting calculation in interior lighting spaces is made using the usage factor method. This method is also called "luminous flux or efficiency method". First of all, the average illuminance level (Eo) value recommended in the standards (TS EN 12464) for the place where the lighting calculation will be made is determined from the relevant table. Then, the room index k is calculated depending on the geometric dimensions of the space.
k: room index
a: width of the room (m)
b: length of the room (m)
H: height of the room (m)
h: height of the luminaire from the working plane (m)
hçd: height of working plane from floor (m)
la: hanger length (m)
h= H - hcd - la
Reflection factor values are determined depending on the surface colors of the ceiling, wall and working plane of the space.
The average reflectance factor of the ceiling (pt) | The average reflectance factor of the wall (pd) | The average reflectance factor of the work plane(pçd) | |||
80% | Very white | 70% | Light coloured | 20% | Dark coloured |
70% | Off-white | 50% | Dark coloured | ||
50% | Light colored | 30% | Very dark coloured |
From the efficiency table of the luminaire to be used in the lighting installation, the room index and the utilization factor ( ) value depending on the reflection factor of the ceiling, wall and working plane are read. In order to provide the desired Eo average illuminance level in the space, the total luminous flux required by the lamps to be used is calculated.
m: maintenance factor
Eo: average illuminance level (lux)
Φo: total luminous flux of the lamps used in the volume (lm)
Φ1: luminous flux of the lamp(s) in the luminaire used in the volume (lm)
Then, the total number of luminaires required to illuminate the space is determined.
N: number of luminaires
Finally, when N luminaires are used in the volume, it is checked whether the required average illuminance level is provided or not.
Calculation of the Number of Armatures
For the sample office volume 6 m wide, 10 m long, 2.75 m high, reflectance factors of 0.7, 0.5 and 0.2 for ceiling, wall and floor, respectively, in case of using 4x18W, 60 cm x 60 cm, double parabolic lamella flush-mounted office luminaires are used, 0.85 m The determination of the number of luminaires required to obtain an average illuminance level of 500 lx on the working plane at height is given in detail below (maintenance factor is taken as m=0.8).
Usage factor table of Pelsan 4x18W tube fluorescent lamp luminaire
Surface Reflection Factors (Tavan 1 Duvar 1 Zemin) (%) |
|||||||||
Room Index | 80 | 80 | 80 | 70 | 70 | 70 | s0 | s0 | s0 |
70 | s0 | 30 | 70 | s0 | 30 | 70 | s0 | 30 | |
20 | 20 | 20 | 20 | 20 | 20 | 20 | 20 | 20 | |
0,6 | 0,43 | 0,36 | 0,33 | 0,42 | 0,36 | 0,32 | 0,41 | 0,35 | 0,32 |
0,8 | 0,49 | 0,43 | 0,39 | 0,48 | 0,42 | 0,39 | 0,46 | 0,42 | 0,38 |
1 | 0,53 | 0,48 | 0,44 | 0,52 | 0,47 | 0,44 | 0,5 | 0,46 | 0,43 |
1,25 | 0,57 | 0,52 | 0,49 | 0,56 | 0,51 | 0,48 | 0,54 | 0,5 | 0,47 |
1,5 | 0,59 | 0,55 | 0,52 | 0,58 | 0,54 | 0,51 | 0,56 | 0,53 | 0,5 |
2 | 0,62 | 0,59 | 0,56 | 0,61 | 0,58 | 0,55 | 0,59 | 0,56 | 0,54 |
2,5 | 0,64 | 0,6 | 0,58 | 0,62 | 0,59 | 0,57 | 0,6 | 0,57 | 0,56 |
3 | 0,65 | 0,62 | 0,6 | 0,63 | 0,61 | 0,59 | 0,61 | 0,59 | 0,57 |
4 | 0,66 | 0,64 | 0,62 | 0,65 | 0,63 | 0,61 | 0,62 | 0,61 | 0,59 |
5 | 0,67 | 0,65 | 0,64 | 0,66 | 0,64 | 0,63 | 0,63 | 0,62 | 0,6 |
Determining the Number of Luminaires with the Help of the Lighting Chart
The lighting calculation chart gives information about the total number of luminaires according to the size of the volume in which the relevant luminaire will be used and the desired illumination levels. With the help of these charts, the number of luminaires required for the desired illuminance level can be easily determined. While creating the charts, the room height was accepted as 2.75 m, considering the general use. Assuming that the room geometries are also rectangular, the charts were created for values ranging from 20 to 200 m2 with a total area of 0.7, 0.5, and 0.2 for the ceiling, wall, and floor, respectively, with reflectance factors frequently encountered in a classic office space. The maintenance factor is taken as 0.8 in the calculations.
The chart below shows the number of luminaires required in order to obtain an average illuminance level of 300 lx, 500 lx and 750 lx in case of using Pelsan 4x18W power 60 cm x 60 cm double parabolic lamella flush mounted office luminaire in a classic office volume for areas ranging from 20 to 200 m2. created to be determined. As can be seen from the chart, 12 pieces of 4x18W tube fluorescent luminaires must be used in order to obtain 500 lx average illuminance level in a 60 m2 volume.
Example chart of 4x18W Double Parabolic Lamella Recessed Tube Fluorescent Luminaire
Road Lighting Mechanisms
Left unilateral assembly
Right one-sided assembly
reciprocal arrangement
shifted assembly
Double console assembly from the median
Double console opposing arrangement from the median
Double console displaced device from the median
Transverse suspension arrangement
Longitudinal suspension arrangement in the median
Road Lighting Calculations
Road lighting calculations are generally carried out according to the "point lighting calculation method".
Road Classes
The reflective properties of road surfaces are given by either the luminance factor q (β,γ) or the reduced luminance factor r (β,tgγ). In fact, the luminance factor or reduced luminance factor or reduced luminance factor depends on the orientation of the point under consideration to the observer and the light source. Road classes, average luminance factors and S1, S2 specular factors used in road lighting are given in the table below.
Road Classes | qo | s1 | s2 |
R1 | 0,10 | 0,25 | 1,53 |
R2 | 0,07 | 0,58 | 1,80 |
R3 | 0,07 | 1,11 | 2,38 |
R4 | 0,08 | 1,55 | 3,03 |
N1 | 0,10 | 0,18 | 1,30 |
N2 | 0,07 | 0,41 | 1,48 |
N3 | 0,07 | 0,88 | 1,98 |
N4 | 0,08 | 1,61 | 2,84 |
Cl | 0,10 | 0,24 | - |
Cll | 0,07 | 0,97 | - |
Table: Classification of road surfaces by material used
Road Classes |
Material Structure |
R1 N1 | Concrete road surfaces, asphalt road surfaces with an artificial gloss of 15%, road surfaces consisting of 80% very bright crown particles. |
R2 N2 | Road surfaces with coarse texture and normal fine gravel, asphalt surfaces with 10-15% artificial shine, rough and coarse asphalt surfaces rich in gravel (60%) and gravel size greater than 10% mm. |
R3 N3 | Coarse asphalt surfaces with dark colored gravel of 10mm in diameter and smaller rough but shiny road surfaces |
R4 N4 | Mastic asphalt, shiny and very smooth road surfaces. |
Turkey city roads and lighting classes
Road Description | Lighting Class |
City connection and ring roads (one or two-way, including intersections and connection points and city crossings) -Speed 3 90km/h -Speed |
M1 M2 |
Main urban routes (boulevards and avenues ring roads; distributor roads) -50 km/h Speed -50 km/h Speed -Speed |
M1 M2 M3 |
City roads (main roads and connection roads where entrances and exits to residential areas are made) -Speed 3 50km/h; There are intersections and clover separation at intervals of less than 3 km; -Speed 3 50km/h; Intersections at intervals shorter than 3km, no clover separation; -Speed -Speed |
M3 M4 M4 M5 |
Roads in residential areas -30 Speed -30 Speed -Speed -Speed |
M4 M5 M5 M6 |
Lighting quality quantities to be provided for different lighting classes
Lighting Class | Lort(cd/m2) | U | U | TI (%) | SR |
M1 | 3 2.0 | 3 0.4 | 3 0.7 | 10 | 3 0.5 |
M2 | 3 1.5 | 3 0.4 | 3 0.7 | 10 | 3 0.5 |
M3 | 3 1.0 | 3 0.4 | 3 0.5 | 15 | 3 0.5 |
M4 | 3 0.75 | 3 0.4 | 3 0.5 | 15 | 3 0.5 |
M5 | 3 0.50 | 3 0.35 | 3 0.4 | 15 | 3 0.5 |
M6 | 3 0.30 | 3 0.35 | 3 0.4 | 15 | - |
Lo: Average luminance of the road (cd/m)
Uo: Average smoothness (Uo=Lmin/Lort)
Ul: Longitudinal smoothness (Ul=Lmin/Lmax)
TI: Relative oblique residue (TI={ΔLK-ΔLe}/ΔLe)
SR: Containment ratio
Determination of the Lighting Calculation Points on the Road Surface
First of all, the account area must be determined. In road lighting calculations, the calculation area is the section between two poles. Observer positions are determined 60 m behind the first luminaire in the calculation area and in the middle of each lane.
s: distance between poles (m)
wş: lane width (m)
N:number of calculation points in the longitudinal direction
distance between poles; If s E 3f 30 m N = 10
distance between poles; If s> 30 m, N is determined so that D E 3 is 3 m.
Calculating the Illuminance of a Point on the Road Surface
The horizontal illuminance level of a point is equal to the sum of the illuminance levels of all contributing luminaires at that point. The figure shows the point P on the road surface for which the illuminance will be calculated.
I(C,γ): i. Luminous intensity value reaching the P point from the th luminaire (cd)/p>
γ: Angle of the ray incident to point P with the vertical
a: Number of luminaires contributing to point P
h: Height of luminaire photometric center from ground (m)
C is the plane angle.
Isometric Level Diagrams
Isometric diagrams are obtained by combining points with equiluminance levels on a plane as lines. In these diagrams, the height of the luminaire's light-emitting optical part (approximately the luminaire's mounting height) is considered essential. In all diagrams, this value is taken as 10 meters to be standard. The diagram is built on a cartesian grid system. The point (0,0) is determined as the center of the luminaire's light emitting surface. The illuminance level (Enadir) at the point (0,0), in other words just below the luminaire, is given in the title of the diagram. The upper part of the point (0,0) is labeled as the pavement side and the lower part is labeled as the road side. The positive and negative numbers (-7,-6,-5...0,1,2,3..) on the X and Y axes are used to determine the illuminance levels at certain points in terms of luminaire mounting height. For example, the road side (1.1) point represents the point 10 meters to the right and 10 meters below the luminaire. To find the illuminance level at this point, the closest iso-illuminance curve to that point is used. The values of the iso-illuminance curves are given below the diagram. For luminaires of different heights, the loop table on the right of the diagram is used. For example, the illuminance level found for a luminaire with a height of 5 meters is multiplied by 4.
Cone Diagrams
Conical diagrams show the maximum and average illuminance levels provided at certain distances from the luminaire. The circles in the conic diagram represent the diameter of the illumination created by the light beam coming out of the luminaire at the said distance; The numerical values next to these circles represent the maximum and average illuminance levels provided in the circle.
Calculating the Luminance of a Point on the Road Surface
The luminance of a point P on surface l is equal to the sum of the luminances produced by all luminaires at this point. The glow of a P point,
It is calculated with the equation. The luminance factor q is the ratio of the calculated luminance value to the horizontal illuminance level for a particular observation direction and a particular direction of light. The representation of the sizes used is given in the figure. Here;
I(Ci,γi): i. light intensity value from the source to the P point (cd)
γi: Angle between the ray from source i to point P and the normal to the surface
h: Height of luminaire photometric center from ground (m)
q(βi,γi) : Luminance factor (cd/m /lx)
αq: Observation angle. The vertical angle between the light reflected from the road surface and the horizontal plane
β: Angle between the vertical plane of the light's direction of incidence and the direction of observation
C: Plane angle
Industrial Area Lighting
*In industrial area lighting, vehicles with their own specific task need special lighting.
*This type of lighting should primarily provide physical security.
*The stroboscopic effect, which causes the wrong perception of the movements of the objects, should be eliminated.
* Too much light level should be avoided.
*For industrial area lighting, the comfort of people working in these areas should be considered.
* Care should be taken to avoid excessive reflections and shadows.
*Since such areas are in constant activity, energy saving should be considered in lighting.
*Light sources with a long working life should be preferred since industrial facilities are generally places with high ceilings.
*The lamps used in these places should be easy to change.
*Exproof luminaires should be used in places where there are flammable explosive materials such as gas stations.
Luminaire: 2X54W TL5 Karpat High Ceiling - 89W Karpat LED High Ceiling Space: Industrial Areas
Determining the Number of Luminaires with the Help of the Lighting Calculation Chart The lighting chart gives information about the total number of luminaires according to the size of the volume in which the relevant luminaire will be used and the desired illumination levels. With the help of these charts, the number of luminaires required for the desired illuminance level can be easily determined. While preparing the charts, the ceiling height was accepted as 8 m, considering the general use. Assuming that the room geometries are also rectangular, the charts were created for values ranging from 80 to 260 m2 with a total area of 0.3, 0.3 and 0.1 for the ceiling, wall and floor, respectively, with reflectance factors frequently encountered in a classical office space. The maintenance factor is taken as 0.8 in the calculations. The chart below has been created to determine the number of luminaires required to obtain an average illuminance level of 200 lx, 300 lx and 500 lx in case of using Pelsan 89W Karpat LED and 2x54W Karpat TL5 high ceiling luminaire in a classical industrial area volume for areas ranging from 80 to 260 m2. As can be seen from the chart, 18 x 89W Karpat LEDs or 19 2x54W Carpathian high ceiling luminaires must be used to obtain an average illuminance level of 300 lx in a volume of 240 m2.
Controlling Lighting
Energy savings can be achieved by using systems that provide sufficient lighting when necessary. These systems automatically turn off the lamps when there are no people in line with the signals they receive from their sensors, and automatically turn off or dimmer the lamps when the amount of daylight entering the environment increases. Energy savings of up to 40% can be achieved with these systems, which dim to avoid lighting more than necessary.
Making Appropriate Lighting Design
In a design based on energy saving, first of all, the surfaces in the relevant area (Wall, Ceiling, Floor) should be painted or covered with colors with high reflectivity. Required lighting should be considered for each relevant level. For example, if an office lighting requires an illuminance of 1000 lux for the working plane, the entire office should not be illuminated at 1000 lux. Alternative Lighting Solutions * To illuminate interior spaces that do not receive enough light from the outside during the day, by carrying fiber optic cables or reflective pipes. * The use of solar energy systems that obtain electrical energy from solar energy and store the electrical energy it obtains and fulfill the function of lighting when there is no solar radiation. * Since the aim in energy saving is to reduce the energy input, this aim can be achieved by providing this energy from renewable sources. The need for emergency lighting can be met with small-sized wind-solar hybrid energy systems to be placed on the roofs of the houses.
* Using High Efficiency Light Sources
Providing the light required for lighting from light sources with high efficiency factor is the first condition of energy saving in lighting. Light sources with a high efficacy factor give more luminous flux per unit power. Therefore, it gives less luminous flux for the same illuminance level when using sources with efficiency factor. Therefore, less light source is needed for the same illuminance level and less energy is consumed in lighting using sources with high efficiency factor. For example, making factory interior lighting made with high pressure mercury vapor lamps in fluorescent lamps can save up to 43%. The efficiency factors of light sources can be taken from the comparative table of the lamps.
* Using High Efficiency Fixtures
Luminaires cannot distribute all the rays emitted by the light sources inside the area where they are used effectively. Some of the rays are absorbed by the reflective surfaces or these surfaces cannot be reflected to the intended area because they are not positioned correctly. In order to eliminate this situation, high efficiency luminaires with a quality and properly designed reflector should be used.
* Using Less Loss Components
Discharge lamps, which are one of the basic elements of efficient indoor and outdoor lighting today, are generally used as ballast, starter, igniter, etc. needs auxiliary components. The active power loss of auxiliary components such as ballast, which is in continuous operation, affects the efficiency of the system to a great extent. For example, system efficiency can be increased by using ballasts with less active power loss (Low loss magnetic or electronic ballasts) or by using busbar channels instead of conventional installations.
Energy Saving in Lighting
It is to save energy by reducing energy input by increasing lighting efficiency without sacrificing visual performance and comfort. This savings cannot be achieved by providing insufficient lighting, as it is known wrongly. Because, although insufficient lighting reduces energy consumption, it does not ultimately save money, as it negatively affects the productivity of those working in the relevant field. In addition, since it causes an increase in work accidents, it may result in the opposite of what is expected. This savings can be possible by improving the following lighting components.
* Using high efficiency light sources
* Using high-efficiency fixtures
* Using less lossy components (eg lower loss ballast)
* Lighting control.
* To design appropriate lighting.
* Using alternative lighting components